March 15, 2019

STUDEBAKER

Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Co. (1902)

Studebaker Automobile Co. (1902-1911)

Studebaker Corp. (1911-1954)

Studebaker-Packard Corp. (1954-1962)

Studebaker Corp. (1962-1966)

South Bend, Indiana


This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1924-1926)       mjs
Size: 62mm wide 57mm diameter      MM: Unknown

The Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company of South Bend, Indiana was one of the largest horse drawn vehicle manufacturers in America when they developed their first horseless vehicle in 1897. The company also built bodies for several electric car makers and in 1902 began to produce their own car. The first Studebaker was a simple electric buggy-like runabout designed by Thomas Alva Edison but later models were more sophisticated. Twenty electrics were built in the first year and electric passenger car production continued until 1912.

Electric powered commercials were also produced, including light-duty delivery vans and trucks from 1/2-ton to 4-ton capacity with a 5-ton truck appearing in 1905. By 1906 Studebaker was offering twelve different electric models of which seven were commercial vehicles. Electric commercial vehicle production came to an end in 1910.

From late 1903, Studebaker began to build gasoline cars using chassis supplied by Garford (see Studebaker-Garford). These were 16 hp two-cylinder chain driven models and were followed in 1905 by a shaft driven 20 hp four-cylinder model. Studebaker cars built using Garford chassis were marketed as Studebaker but were known as Studebaker-Garford. In 1907 and 1908 some Studebaker models were also marketed by Garford as Garford cars, which was an infringement of the agreement with Studebaker.

In 1908 Studebaker started an association with the Everitt-Metzger-Flanders Company and with Walter Flanders, which led to the take-over by Studebaker of E-M-F and Flanders 20 and the formation of the Studebaker Corporation in 1911. The agreement with Garford ended in 1910 and Studebaker began to increase the use of chassis supplied by E-M-F., although some Studebaker models from 1911 and 1912 were still marketed also as Garford. By 1910 Studebaker cars were 28 hp, 30 hp and 40 hp four-cylinder models. Six-cylinder models were introduced in 1913.

Studebaker produced gasoline powered light vans using Flanders passenger car chassis after 1911 but from 1913 Studebaker used their own chassis for commercial vehicles. Commercial vehicle production was virtually abandoned from 1917 until 1926 when the company produced a line of ambulances and hearses with bodies built by Superior. Other commercial vehicles included buses, coaches, delivery trucks and light panel delivery vans.

Studebaker was a successful company and passenger car sales rose year by year. By 1920 all Studebakers were six-cylinder models. Then in 1928 Studebaker announced the introduction of its big straight-eight series with the Studebaker President initially delivering 100 hp and offering higher quality styling. In the late 1920's and early 1930's Studebaker cars performed well in endurance and racing events. The Studebaker President was well received by customers and sales grew further. 

By the early 1930's Studebaker found itself in trouble. Its purchase of Pierce-Arrow in 1928 had been a financial mistake, a new car called the Rockne introduced in 1932 was going badly and the Erskine which was introduced in 1927 was also in financial trouble. By March 1933 Studebaker was in receivership.

Paul Hoffman became the new Studebaker president, Pierce-Arrow was sold and a major advertising campaign was launched that put Studebaker back on course. Studebaker was the ninth largest automaker in 1934 and was out of receivership by March 1935. In 1936 Studebaker introduced a new line of trucks, available as the 1-1/2-ton Metro Ace and the 2-ton Metro Boss. In 1939, Studebaker introduced the highly successful Studebaker Champion. More than 200,000 Champions were built by 1941 when America entered World War II and production continued after the end of the war.

During World War II Studebaker built nearly 200,000 trucks and continued at a production rate of about 67,000 trucks a year up to 1948, after when Studebaker trucks continued in production at a lower level until 1964. Studebaker automobile sales grew to 239,000 by 1949. Studebaker introduced a new line of automobiles in 1953 to compete with the bigger auto manufacturers but finances suffered with the merger with Packard in 1954. By 1959 the only Studebaker models offered were the Hawk and Lark series.

In 1962, Studebaker introduced the fiberglass-bodied Avanti coupe. But this did not save Studebaker and the South Bend plant closed in 1964. Production transferred to Canada but it was all over for Studebaker by the spring of 1966.

Emblems

Studebaker used a script version of the name "Studebaker" as its logo, see example below on an advertisement for horse drawn carriages:

This is a Studebaker ad showing a script logo (1902)    ms

This Studebaker script was not registered as a trademark until July 1912 but Studebaker claimed that they had been using it as a trademark since 1867.

The horse drawn carriages and wagons built by Studebaker carried a small maker's tag or nameplate using the script logo, see example below:

This is a Studebaker maker's tag on a horse drawn carriage (c1895)    yaim

The first Studebaker electric and gasoline cars did not carry an emblem but would have displayed small nameplates similar to that shown above. The Studebaker script would also have been displayed on the step plates, see example below:

This is a Studebaker step plate    yaim

Early Studebaker commercial vehicles displayed slightly larger nameplates, see examples below. Studebaker nameplates from this period are rare.


This is believed to be an early Studebaker electric commercial vehicle nameplate (1902-1903)      mjs
Size: 105mm wide 39mm high

This is a Studebaker commercial vehicle nameplate (c1907)     mjs
Size: 167mm wide 65mm high

A very similar Studebaker nameplate is displayed at the back of and, together with a Studebaker serial plate, at the front of a 1908 Studebaker electric bus on display at the Swigart Auto Museum, see below:

This is a Studebaker nameplate and serial plate attached to an electric bus (1908)     sam
Size: 162mm wide 66mm high & 92mm wide 38mm high

The following photos show the Studebaker nameplate/serial plates found on a Studebaker Model 25 electric wagon:

This is a Studebaker Model 25 electric wagon side nameplate (date unknown)   tbcb

This is a Studebaker Model 25 rear nameplate/serial plate (date unknown)    tbcb

The first Studebaker gasoline motor cars used Garford chassis and associated components and were known as Studebaker-Garford. From late 1903 and through 1904, these vehicles did not carry an emblem but would have displayed the Studebaker script on the serial plates, similar to those shown above.

A 1904 Studebaker-Garford Model C at the Studebaker National Museum displays a small, cast brass or bronze "Studebaker" script on the radiator core, see below. If this script is original, it would be very early indeed. It is more likely that this "Studebaker" script was a later addition.

This Studebaker radiator script on a 1904 Model C is unlikely to be original

The first confirmed use of a Studebaker radiator emblem was in 1905, see original photo below of a Studebaker Model 9502, which displays a small rectangular radiator emblem:


This is a Studebaker-Garford Model 9502 showing a radiator emblem (1905)  ms

This Studebaker radiator emblem is more clearly seen on a surviving Studebaker Model G-30 from 1906, which has the brass emblem riveted to the front of the radiator shell with "Studebaker Automobile Company, South Bend, Ind," inscribed in plain block letters, see photos below. This car also displays a large brass "Studebaker" script attached to the radiator core. However, brass "Studebaker" radiator scripts were not in confirmed use until about 1907, so the example shown was likely to have been added at a later date.

This is a studebaker Model G showing a radiator emblem and script (1906)  sotheby's

This is close up showing the Studebaker radiator emblem (1906)

This small brass Studebaker radiator emblem appears to have been used on some Studebaker models until at least 1908, see original photo below. This Studebaker also displays a large brass Studebaker radiator script confirming its use by 1908.

This original Studebaker photo shows the radiator emblem and script (1908)   dpl

The following original photo, also from 1908, shows a Studebaker car with the large brass Studebaker radiator script but no radiator emblem, which suggests that the small brass Studebaker radiator emblem was used on some Studebaker models from 1905 until 1908.

This is a Studebaker showing a radiator script but no emblem (1908)   dpl

From 1907, some Studebaker cars carried a Studebaker-Garford radiator emblem. A fine surviving example of a Model H Studebaker-Garford displayed at the Crawford Aviation and Auto Museum carries a Studebaker-Garford radiator emblem and a brass "Garford" script attached to the radiator core but shows the "Studebaker" name on the serial plate and on the hub caps, see below:  

This is a Studebaker-Garford Model H showing a radiator emblem and script (1907)   caam

This is a Studebaker serial plate on a Studebaker-Garford Model H (1907)    caam

This is the hub emblem on a Studebaker-Garford Model H (1907)    caam

The "Garford" radiator script displayed on the 1907 Studebaker-Garford car shown above was most likely added later, as this would not have been accepted by Studebaker.

The Studebaker-Garford arrangement was discontinued after the 1911 model year.

Studebaker did not build their own motor cars for 1911 and 1912 but did build cars for EMF and Flanders and the "Studebaker" name was attached to the emblems and serial plates as manufacturer, see example below:

This is a Studebaker built EMF radiator emblem (c1911)     mjs
Size: 50mm diameter    MM: None

Studebaker introduced its own passenger car in 1913 and these displayed a brass "Studebaker" script placed centrally on the radiator core, see example below. The "Studebaker" name also continued to be used on the hubcaps and serial plates. Studebaker light delivery vehicles were based on passenger car chassis and used the same "Studebaker" script.


This is a Studebaker radiator script (1913-1914)     mjs
Size: 260mm wide 

In 1915, Studebaker cars carried a smaller, nickel plated "Studebaker" script mounted in the lower right corner of the radiator when facing the radiator, see example below: 

This is a Studebaker (originally nickel plated) radiator core script (1915)     mjs
Size: 208mm wide

The first Studebaker radiator emblem was the now, well known "wheel" emblem design, see example below. The example shown, finished in black and white enamel, was used in 1916 through 1919 on all Studebaker models and reintroduced on some models in 1926-1927. 

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1916-1919; 1926-1927)      mjs
Size: 63mm wide 58mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

A similar version of this Studebaker radiator emblem was used on the equivalent vehicles assembled in Canada, see example below. This Canadian Studebaker radiator emblem is scarce. 

This is a Canadian Studebaker radiator emblem (1916-1919; 1926-1927)    mjs
Size: 63mm wide 58mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

The Studebaker "wheel" emblem continued in use, with variations in size and color, until late-1935, see examples below:

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1920-1924)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 57mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

This is a Studebaker Light Six radiator emblem (1920-1924)     mjs
Size: 54mm wide 51mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

This is a Studebaker Special Six radiator emblem (1921-1924)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 58mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1924-1926)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 57mm diameter   MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

The following Studebaker radiator emblem was used on export models and some domestic models:

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1926-1927)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 58mm diameter     MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)


This is a Studebaker President Big Six radiator emblem (1926-1927)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 58mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

The following Studebaker emblem is a more symmetric version of the Studebaker President emblem shown above:

This is a Studebaker President Big Six radiator emblem (1926-1927)    dnc
Size: 62mm wide 58mm diameter     MM: D L Auld

The following Studebaker President Big Six radiator emblem was used on models assembled in Canada. This Canadian Studebaker radiator emblem is scarce.

This is a Canadian Studebaker President Big Six radiator emblem (1926-1927)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 58mm diameter     MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

The following Studebaker radiator emblem is a smaller version of the first enamel Studebaker radiator emblem and was used from late 1927 to June 1928:

This is a Studebaker emblem (late 1927-mid 1928)    mjs
Size: 55mm wide 50mm diameter     MM: D L Auld

The following, even smaller version is believed to have been used as a radiator emblem on the second series Studebaker Dictator just before the introduction of the third series in June 1928, but this is not confirmed. If you can clarify when this Studebaker emblem was used, please let me know, in order to update this post.

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1928)      mjs
Size: 46mm wide 43mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

There was a change in the Studebaker radiator emblem design in 1928, see examples below with wheel tires finished in pale blue or white enamel. 

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (pale blue) (1928-1931)      ms
Size: 53mm diameter      MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (white) (1928-1931)    kmc
Size: 53mm diameter    MM: D L Auld

The following Studebaker radiator emblem was used on export models:

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1928-1931)      mjs
Size: 53mm diameter    MM: Unknown (some D L Auld)

There is also a red enamel version of this Studebaker radiator emblem, see example below. This Studebaker radiator emblem is rare.

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1928-1931)    sam
Size: 53mm diameter    MM: Unknown

The Studebaker radiator emblem design was changed again in 1932 with a relatively small wheel emblem mounted within a larger feature located in the center at the top of the radiator grille, see example below:
This is a Studebaker President radiator emblem (1932)    acdm

These small Studebaker radiator emblems usually have either a pale blue or white enamel rim, see examples below:

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1930-1934)    acdm
Size: 32mm wide 31mm diameter    MM: Unknown

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1930-1934)     mjs
Size: 32mm wide 31mm diameter    MM: Unknown

The corresponding emblems for export models had "Made In" stamped on the left side edge of the small wheel emblem and "U.S.A." stamped on the right side edge, see below:

This is a Studebaker emblem showing the "U.S.A." stamping on the right side edge   kmc
Size: 32mm wide 31mm diameter

The all metal Studebaker emblem shown below was mounted on the top of the vertical bar dividing the radiator grille in 1935. The "Made in USA" inscription was used on both domestic and export models.

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1935)       mjs
Size: 37mm wide 30mm diameter       MM: None
     

Studebaker commercial vehicles built in the period 1927-1930 carried the same emblems as the passenger cars.

Studebaker emblems made specially to be used on trucks appeared in 1930 for a new range of 3/4-ton to 3-1/2-ton capacity trucks, see examples below. These Studebaker truck emblems are rare.

This is a Studebaker truck radiator emblem (1930-1931)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 31mm high      MM: D L Auld

This is a Studebaker truck export model radiator emblem (1930-1931)     mjs
Size: 62mm wide 31mm high     MM: D L Auld

The Studebaker truck radiator emblem design was changed slightly after 1931, see examples below. These Studebaker radiator emblems are rare.

This is a Studebaker truck radiator emblem (1932-1933)     ms
Size: 62mm wide 19mm high     MM: D L Auld

This is a Studebaker truck export model radiator emblem (1934-1935)     mjs
Size: 60mm wide 29mm high     MM: D L Auld

Studebaker trucks also displayed hood side nameplates, as shown below, from about 1931 on some larger truck models and on all truck models from 1933 to 1935. 

This is a Studebaker truck hood side nameplate (c1931-1935)    lktec
Size: 298mm wide 35mm high

There was a complete change in Studebaker emblem design from 1935 for passenger cars and commercial vehicles. The changes in emblem design are described below, first for passenger cars and then for commercial vehicles. 

There was a change in Studebaker passenger car radiator design from November 1935. The emblem became a large, red circular emblem mounted on the upper left side of the radiator grille with similar emblems sometimes mounted on the rear deck or trunk lid., see examples below:

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1936-1938)      mjs
Size: 71mm diameter    MM: Ross-Adseal

The same Studebaker radiator emblem exists with "Made in Canada" for models assembled in Canada.


This is a Studebaker trunk lid emblem (1936-1937)     mjs
Size: 71mm diameter   MM: Fox (also D L Auld)

The following is a Studebaker President radiator emblem:

This is a Studebaker President radiator emblem (1936-1938)      mjs
Size: 70mm diameter     MM: D L Auld

Note that there are good quality reproductions of the Studebaker emblems shown above.

The following Studebaker emblem is much smaller and has a variation in background pattern behind the red enamel. Possibly this is a steering wheel center but I cannot confirm this.

This may be a Studebaker steering wheel center emblem (date uncertain)     mjs
Size: 54mm diameter   MM: Fox

The Studebaker President horn button had a black painted emblem from 1935-1936, see example below:
This is a Studebaker President horn button emblem (1935-1936)    shrockbrothers.com

The following Studebaker horn button emblem was used on Commander models from 1937-1940 and on Champion models from 1939-1940:


This is a Studebaker horn button emblem (1937-1940)     shrockbrothers.com
Size: 62mm diameter

Studebaker President models used the horn button emblem shown below from 1937-1940:

This is a Studebaker President horn button emblem (1937-1940)     shrockbrothers.com

The Studebaker radiator emblem was changed in 1939 to an "S" emblem placed on the upper center panel above the radiator grille.


This is a Studebaker President advertisement showing the new radiator emblem (1939)   ms 

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1939)       ms
Size: Unknown    MM: Unknown

There were changes in design of the Studebaker radiator emblem over the next few years, see examples below:

This is a Studebaker radiator emblem (1940)     ms

The named Studebaker models had the model names in script on the hood sides, see examples below:

This is a Studebaker President radiator emblem (1941)    ms

This is a Studebaker Champion emblem (1941)     ms

This is a Studebaker Champion hood emblem (1942)      ebay
Size: Unknown    MM: Unknown

Different designs of Studebaker horn button emblems were used for each model, see examples below:

This is a Studebaker Commander horn button emblem (1941)    mjs
Size: 66mm diameter    MM: Fox

This is a Studebaker Champion horn button emblem (1941)     mjs
Size: 60mm diameter    MM: Fox

The following red enamel spear shaped Studebaker emblem was used as the deluxe steering wheel center emblem for the Studebaker Commander in late 1940 to mid-1941. This Studebaker steering wheel center emblem is scarce. 

This is a deluxe Studebaker steering wheel  emblem (late 1940-mid 1941)   ms
Size: 184mm high 38mm wide max    MM: Unknown

There was also a blue enamel version of this Studebaker emblem, see example below. This Studebaker steering wheel center emblem is rare.

This is a deluxe Studebaker steering wheel emblem (late 1940-mid 1941)   dnc
Size; 184mm high  38mm wide   MM: Unknown

The following spear shaped Studebaker emblem showing an airplane and racing car motif was used as the steering wheel center emblem for the Studebaker Commander and President models in late 1941 through 1942. This Studebaker steering wheel emblem is rare.

This is a Studebaker Commander steering wheel emblem (late 1941-1942)   mjs
Size: 184mm high 38mm wide max    MM: Unknown

Studebaker passenger car production ceased from 1942 until 1946. The following hood emblem was used on the first Studebaker Champion models to appear when passenger car production recommenced after the Second World War in 1946:

This is a Studebaker Champion hood emblem (1946-1947)     ms
Size: Unknown    MM: Unknown

As with Studebaker passenger cars, Studebaker truck emblems were redesigned after 1935. 

In 1936, winged wheel mascots incorporating the "Studebaker" name were displayed on Studebaker trucks, together with with pressed metal, winged wheel emblems mounted on the center of the radiator grille and nameplates located on each side of the hood, see examples below. For cab-over-engine truck models the hood side nameplates were located on the cab doors. These Studebaker grille emblems and side hood nameplates are scarce.

This is a Studebaker truck mascot (1936-1941)      ms

This is a Studebaker truck radiator grille emblem (1936)     aowm
Size: 213mm wide 58mm high      MM: Unknown  

This is a Studebaker Ace truck radiator grille emblem (1936)      mjs
Size: 213mm wide 58mm high    MM: Unknown

This is a Studebaker Boss radiator grille emblem (1936)      mjs
Size: 213mm wide 58mm high    MM: Unknown

This is a Studebaker Mogul radiator grille emblem (1936)      lktec
Size: 213mm wide 58mm high     MM: Unknown

This is a Studebaker Boss truck hood side nameplate (mid-1936-early 1937)     mjs
Size:  Unknown      MM: None

The Studebaker Boss hood side nameplate shown above and, presumably, similar hood side nameplates for other models, Studebaker Ace for example, were also displayed on the frame at the rear of the truck.

The Studebaker truck radiator grille emblems shown above were not used after 1936 but the Studebaker winged wheel mascot continued in use until early 1941 with hood side nameplates without model names.

The Studebaker hood side nameplate for 1937 is shown below:

This is a Studebaker truck showing the hood side nameplate (1937)    ms
Close up showing the hood side nameplate (1937)

The Studebaker truck hood side nameplate for 1938 is shown below: 

This is a Studebaker truck showing the hood side nameplate (1938)    ms

Close up showing the hood side nameplate (1938)    

The Studebaker hood side namelates for 1939 to early 1941 were similar to the 1938 hood side nameplate shown above.

Studebaker built a large number of trucks for military use during the Second World War. A few Studebaker trucks were built for civilian use from 1941 to 1945. These displayed the Studebaker name on a curved metal nameplate located on the front of the hood, see example below. This design was continued on civilian Studebaker trucks built after the Second World War from 1946 to 1948.
This is a Studebaker truck hood emblem (1941-1948)     ms

I am most grateful to Dennis Neilsen for his valuable advice on the dates of use of Studebaker emblems. Any errors in my interpretation of this advice are entirely down to me.



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