I wish to thank the following people for their help in setting up and populating this web-site:
Claus H Wulff for his superb website www.radiatoremblems.com, which shows many of the finest pre-war auto emblems used across the world, and which was the inspiration for my web-site.
Murray John Shears for allowing his auto emblem collection to form the basis of this web-site.
Patricia Swigart and Marge Cutright for allowing access to the extensive auto emblem collection held at The William E Swigart, Jr. Automobile Museum near Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.
Dr Fred Simeone at the Simeone Foundation Auto Museum in Philadelphia for allowing access to his auto literature collection to aid research into the use of early American auto emblems.
Leslie Kendal at the Petersen Auto Museum in Los Angeles for allowing access to the Harry Pulfer emblem reference collection.
Lauren B at The Henry Ford Research Center, Dearborn, Michigan.
Carl Burst for his most valuable advice regarding Moon emblems.
Robert Calvert for his valuable advice regarding Hupmobile emblems
Roger & Shelia Chandler for their valuable advice regarding Chandler emblems.
Hal Fillinger for his helpful advice regarding American LaFrance emblems.
Walt Gosden for his helpful advice and encouragement.
Kurt Hohl for his valuable advice and for allowing access to his emblem collection.
Lynn Kissel for his valuable advice regarding the emblems used by the Kissel Motor Car Company.
Leigh Knudson for allowing access to his truck emblem collection.
Rick Kress Sr for his valuable advice regarding the Hanover car and its emblems.
Dennis Kuhn for allowing access to his hub cap and emblem collection.
Karla Maxwell for her helpful advice and for providing access to her emblem photo collection.
Walter McCall for his helpful advice regarding American LaFrance emblems.
Dennis Neilsen for his extremely helpful and detailed advice, especially on the use and dates of use of emblems, and for providing photos from his emblem collection.
Tom Rasmussen from the Franklin Club for his valuable advice regarding Franklin emblems.
Kenny Roach from the Oakland Owners Club for his valuable advice regarding Oakland emblems.
Bob Snyder for his valuable advice on all matters relating to auto emblems.
John Weis for his expert advice and encouragement.
Lindsay A Yotsukura for her valuable assistance researching Acme emblems.
Where I have taken advice from external reference sources or from individuals on the use and dates of use of emblems, I take full responsibility for the accuracy of my interpretation of this advice.
In this web-site, photos of emblems and nameplates have a reference mark to indicate the source of the emblem or photo at the time of writing the post. These reference marks are decoded below:
aa: Antique Automobile
aacaf: AACA Forum
aacam: AACA Museum, Hershey, Pennsylvania
aaw: American Automobiles website
acdm: Auburn Cord Duesenberg Museum, Auburn, Indiana
alt: Al Thurn auto emblem photo collection
aowm: America on Wheels Museum, Allentown, Pennsylvania
atj: Automobile Trade Journal
bhl: Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan
bk: Bob Kuehn
bmc: Collection of the Bennington Museum, Bennington, Vermont
bmhv: Boyertown Museum of Historic Vehicles, Boyertown, Pennsylvania
caam: Crawford Auto & Aviation Museum, Cleveland, Ohio
catj: Cycle & Automobile Trade Journal
cbc: Carl Burst collection
cccm: Canton Classic Car Museum, Canton, Ohio
cccmlc: Car and Carriage Caravan Museum, Luray Caverns, VA
cmfem: Central Mutual Insurance Co. Fire Engine Museum, Van Wert, Ohio
chw: Claus H Wulff web-site www.radiatoremblems.com
dkc: Dennis Kuhn hub cap and emblem collection
dnc: Dennis Neilsen emblem collection
dpl: Courtesy of the National Automotive History Collection, Detroit Public Library
dbc: Don Barlup collection
ehm: Elwood Haynes Museum, Kokomo, Indiana
gcm: Gilmore Car Museum, Hickory Corners, Michigan
hatm: Hayes Antique Truck Museum, Woodland, California
hcg: Horseless Carriage Gazette
hfm: The Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan
hfrc: The Henry Ford Research Center, Dearborn, Michigan
hmsj: History Museums of San Jose, San Jose, California
hperc: Harry Pulfer emblem reference collection
hsc: Herb Singe collection
jab: John A Boggs emblem collection
jdw: JD Weeks
jfec: John Fennell emblem collection
jwec: Jim Wirth emblem collection
kam: Kokomo Auto Museum, Kokomo, Indiana
khec: Kurt Hohl emblem collection
kmc: Karla Maxwell emblem photo collection
kr: Kenny Roach collection
laam: Larz Anderson Auto Museum, Brookline, Massachusetts
ld: Literary Digest
lktec: Leigh Knudson truck emblem collection
mjs: Murray John Shears emblem collection
mg: Mike Giddens
mm: MoToR Magazine
ms: Michael Shears auto emblem photo collection
msch: Moritz Schindhelm
msua: Michigan State University Archives
mthm: Mack Trucks Historical Museum, Allentown, Pennsylvania
mvmm: Mississippi Valley Motor Company Magazine
mwc: Mark Wetherbee emblem collection
nmm: National Motor Museum, Beaulieu, UK
nc: Nethercutt Collection, San Sylmar, California
pam: Petersen Auto Museum, Los Angeles, California
pcc: Pace Connor collection
piam: Pioneer Auto Museum, Murdo, South Dakota
psm: Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
pwc: Parker Wickham collection
rcc: Robert Calvert collection
reotm: R E Olds Transportation Museum, Lansing, Michigan
rjc: Robert Jankovich collection
sac: Smithsonian Automobile Collection, Washington DC
sam: Swigart Antique Auto Museum, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
scam: Seal Cove Auto Museum, Seal Cove, Maine
sdhs: San Diego Historical Society
sfam: Simeone Foundation Auto Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
sm: Sloan Museum, Lansing, Michigan
src: Stew Reamer collection
tam: Tupelo Auto Museum, Tupelo, Mississippi
tbc: Terry Bond collection
tbcb: The Bell Collection, Bellingham, Washington
tha: The Horseless Age
tma: The Motor Age
tom: The Old Motor
wam: Wisconsin Auto Museum, Hartford, Wisconsin
wchm: Wayne County Historical Museum, Richmond, Indiana
wlb: William L. Bailey
wmcc: Walt McCall collection
yahm: Ypsilanti Automotive Heritage Museum, Ypsilanti, Michigan
yaim: York Agricultural & Industrial Museum, York, Pennsylvania
Many printed and web based sources were used as references in preparing the details relating to the emblems, nameplates and vehicles described in this web-site. The following were the primary references:
Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942, Beverly Rae Kimes & Henry Austin Clark Jr.
The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile, G.N.Georgano
The Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars 1885 to the Present, G.N.Georgano
The Complete Encyclopedia of Commercial Vehicles, G.N.Georgano
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of American Trucks and Commercial Vehicles, Albert Mroz
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trucks and Buses, Denis Miller
The American Car since 1775, Editors of Automobile Quarterly
American Truck Spotter's Guide 1920-1970, Tad Burness
American Truck & Bus Spotter's Guide 1920-1985, Tad Burness
Cars of Canada, Hugh Durnford & Glenn Baechler
The Antique Automobile, AACA
The Bulb Horn, VMCCA
The Classic Car, CCCA
Automobile Trade Journal
The Commercial Car Journal
The Old Motor
The Auto Name Plate Collector, Harry Pulfer
American Automobiles website
Specific auto maker's references:
100 Years of American LaFrance: An Illustrated History, Walter M P McCall, 2005
Cadillac Standard of the World, The Complete Seventy-Year History, Maurice D Hendry, 1973
The Clydesdale Motor Truck Company, An Illustrated History, 1917-1939, Tiffany Willey Middleton and James M Semon, 2014
Haynes-Apperson and America's First Practical Automobile - A History, W C Madden, 2006
Hupp Radiator Emblems and Badges 1909-1941, Hupmobile Club
Kelsey:the man and the car, Keith Marvin, The Horseless Carriage Gazette, 1960
Kissel Radiator Emblems, Lynn Kissel, The Kisselgraph, Dec. 2009
The Lexington Automobile: A Complete History, Richard A Stanley, 2007
Lone Star Motor Company, Hugh Hemphill, Texas Transport Museum, San Antonio, Texas
Mack, John B Montville, Haessner Publishing, 1973
A Brief History of the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Company, Bill Roberts
Pictorial History of Pleasure and Commercial Vehicles Manufactured in York County, Pennsylvania, Theodore F Freed & W F O Rosenmiller, 1977
The Porter: Personality, Prestige & Power, Keith Marvin, Antique Automobile, 1962
Premocar-Made in Birmingham, JD Weeks, Lulu Press, 2013
A History of Rainier, Marquette and Peninsular Motor Car Companies, Ronald J Putz, Bulb Horn, 1984
Reo Trucks 1910-1966 Photo Archive, Robert Gabrick, Enthusiast Books, 2006
The Republic Motor Car Company of Hamilton, Ohio; 1909-1914, John C Slade, The Antique and Classic Car Club of Butler County, 1960
Saxon...A Good Low-Priced Car, Kim M Miller, Antique Automobile, 1981
This reference note was written by Mike Shears.