I wish to thank the following people for their help in setting up and populating this web-site:

Claus H Wulff for his superb website, which shows many of the finest pre-war auto emblems used across the world, and which was the inspiration for my web-site.

Murray John Shears for allowing his auto emblem collection to form the basis of this web-site.

Patricia Swigart and Marge Cutright for allowing access to the extensive auto emblem collection held at The William E Swigart, Jr. Automobile Museum near Huntingdon, Pennsylvania.

Dr Fred Simeone at the Simeone Foundation Auto Museum in Philadelphia for allowing access to his auto literature collection to aid research into the use of early American auto emblems.

Leslie Kendal at the Petersen Auto Museum in Los Angeles for allowing access to the Harry Pulfer emblem reference collection.

Michael Arnolt, Kenneth Andren and Peter McGough for their helpful advice on Arnolt cars and their emblems.

Lauren B at The Henry Ford Research Center, Dearborn, Michigan.

Dawn Bondhust for providing emblem details from exhibits at the Wisconsin Auto Museum.

Dave Buehler at the Templar Car Display for his valuable advice regarding Templar emblems.

Carl Burst for his most valuable advice regarding Moon emblems.

Robert Calvert for his valuable advice regarding Hupmobile emblems.

Todd Carlson for his enthusiastic encouragement and for allowing access to his emblem collection.

Roger & Shelia Chandler for their valuable advice regarding Chandler emblems.

Craig Correll for his valuable advice regarding the Michigan motor car and its emblems.

George P Dorris III for his most helpful advice regarding the Dorris motor car and its emblems.

Hal Fillinger for his helpful advice regarding American LaFrance emblems.

Kevin Fleck & Leroy Cole of the Cole Registry and the Cole Motor Car Club of America for their helpful advice regarding Cole emblems.

Kevin Franklin for his valuable technical support and assistance in setting up this web-site.

Walt Gosden for his helpful advice and encouragement.

Jim Gray for his valuable advice regarding emblems used by the Gray Motor Corporation.

Galen Handy for his valuable advice regarding the Detroit Electric car and its emblems. 

Kurt Hohl for his valuable advice and for allowing access to his emblem collection.

Lynn Kissel for his valuable advice regarding the emblems used by the Kissel Motor Car Company.

Leigh Knudson for his help regarding truck emblems and allowing access to his emblem collection.

Rick Kress Sr for his valuable advice regarding the Hanover car and its emblems.

Dennis Kuhn for allowing access to his hub cap and emblem collection.

Mike Lusher for his helpful advice regarding Corbitt trucks and their emblems.

Karla Maxwell for her most helpful advice and for providing access to her emblem photo collection.

Walter McCall for his helpful advice regarding emblems used for fire engines.

Ron Moskalczak for his helpful advice regarding Maccar truck emblems.

Dennis Neilsen for his extremely helpful and detailed advice, especially on the use and dates of use of emblems, and for providing photos from his emblem collection.

Tom Poyer for his helpful advice regarding the Menominee truck and its emblems.

Tom Rasmussen from the Franklin Club for his valuable advice regarding Franklin emblems.

Kenny Roach from the Oakland Owners Club for his valuable advice regarding Oakland emblems.

Dave Schulte for his helpful advice regarding Durant related vehicles and their emblems.

Don Schumaker and Dale R Guth at Mack Trucks Historical Museum in Allentown for their help in identifying Mack emblems.

Bob Snyder for his valuable advice on all matters relating to auto emblems.

Giuseppe Trossarelli for his helpful advice regarding the American Fiat and its emblems.

Paul Vaughn for his valuable advice regarding the Pullman car and its emblems.

Barry Walker for his helpful advice on Herff-Brooks and Marathon emblems. 

J D Weeks for his helpful advice regarding the Premocar and its emblems.

John Weis for his expert advice and encouragement.

Lindsay A Yotsukura for her valuable assistance researching Acme emblems.

Where I have taken advice from external reference sources or from individuals on the use and dates of use of emblems, I take full responsibility for the accuracy of my interpretation of this advice.


In this web-site, photos of emblems and nameplates have a reference mark to indicate the source of the emblem or photo. These reference marks are decoded below:

aa:        Antique Automobile
aacaf:   AACA Forum
aacam: AACA Museum, Hershey, Pennsylvania
aaw:     American Automobiles website
acdm:   Auburn Cord Duesenberg Museum, Auburn, Indiana
acmoi:  Antique Car Museum of Iowa, Coralville, Iowa
alt:       Al Thurn auto emblem photo collection
aowm:  America on Wheels Museum, Allentown, Pennsylvania
atj:       Automobile Trade Journal
bcvtm:  British Columbia Vintage Truck Museum, Victoria, BC
bhl:      Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan
bk:        Bob Kuehn
bmc:     Bennington Museum collection, Bennington, Vermont
bmhv:   Boyertown Museum of Historic Vehicles, Boyertown, Pennsylvania
brc:      Bill Richardson collection
bwc:     Barry Walker collection
cam:     California Auto Museum, Sacramento, California
caam:   Crawford Auto & Aviation Museum, Cleveland, Ohio
caht:     Classic American Heavy Trucks
catj:      Cycle & Automobile Trade Journal
cbc:      Carl Burst collection
ccc:      Craig Correll collection
ccj:       Commercial Car Journal
cccm:   Canton Classic Car Museum, Canton, Ohio
cccmlc: Car and Carriage Caravan Museum, Luray Caverns, VA
chw:      Claus H Wulff web-site
cmcc:    Curt McConnell
cmfem: Central Mutual Insurance Co. Fire Engine Museum, Van Wert, Ohio
cpa:      Corbitt Preservation Association
crc:       Chuck Rhodes collection
dbc:      Don Barlup collection
dkc:      Dennis Kuhn hub cap and emblem collection
dol:      David O. Lyon 
dnc:      Dennis Neilsen emblem collection
dpl:       Detroit Public Library Digital Collection
ebay:    eBay
ehm:     Elwood Haynes Museum, Kokomo, Indiana
flp:       Free Library of Philadelphia
gbc:      Gugliemo Beretta collection
gcm:     Gilmore Car Museum, Hickory Corners, Michigan
gdc:      George P Dorris III collection
ghc:      Galen Handy collection
glc:       Gere Longrie emblem collection
gtc:       Giuseppe Trossarelli collection
hacc:    Henry Austin Clark Jr collection       
hatm:    Hayes Antique Truck Museum, Woodland, California
hcfi:      Horseless Carriage Foundation, Inc.
hcg:      Horseless Carriage Gazette
hfm:      The Henry Ford Museum, Dearborn, Michigan
hfrc:      The Henry Ford Research Center, Dearborn, Michigan
hmsj:     History Museums of San Jose, San Jose, California
hmvf:     Historic Military Vehicle Forum
hperc:   Harry Pulfer emblem reference collection
hsc:       Herb Singe collection
hva:       Historic Vehicle Association
hvdm:    Hans van der Blom collection
imsm:    Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum, Indianapolis, Indiana
iowa80: Iowa 80 Trucking Museum, Walcott, Iowa
ism:       Indiana State Museum, Indianapolis, Indiana
jab:       John A Boggs emblem collection
jbc:       Jeff Buckley Collection
jdw:      JD Weeks
jfec:      John Fennell emblem collection
jtc:        Jack Thomas emblem collection
jwc:       John Webster collection
jwec:     Jim Wirth emblem collection
kac:       Kenneth Andren collection
kam:      Kokomo Auto Museum, Kokomo, Indiana
kbc:       Keith Bortner collection
kfc:        Kevin Fleck collection
khs:       Kansas Historical Society
kpl:       Kentucky Public Library
khc:       Kurt Hohl emblem collection
kmc:      Karla Maxwell emblem photo collection
kr:         Kenny Roach collection
laam:    Larz Anderson Auto Museum, Brookline, Massachusetts
ld:         Literary Digest
lktec:    Leigh Knudson truck emblem collection
ma:       Motor Age
mg:       Mike Giddens
mjs:      Murray John Shears emblem collection
mlc:      Mike Lusher collection
mm:      MoToR magazine
moa:     Museum of Automobiles, Morrilton, Arkansas
mroz:    Albert Mroz
ms:       Michael Shears auto emblem photo collection
msch:   Moritz Schindhelm
msua:   Michigan State University Archives
mthm:   Mack Trucks Historical Museum, Allentown, Pennsylvania
mvmm: Mississippi Valley Motor Company Magazine
mwc:    Mark Wetherbee emblem collection
nam:     National Auto Museum, Reno, Nevada
natm:    National Automotive and Truck Museum, Auburn, Indiana
nc:        Nethercutt Collection, San Sylmar, California
nj:         Niels Jansen
nmm:    National Motor Museum, Beaulieu, UK
nypl:     New York Public Library
omm:    Old Motor Magazine
pam:     Petersen Auto Museum, Los Angeles, California
pcc:      Pace Connor collection
piam:    Pioneer Auto Museum, Murdo, South Dakota
pmcgc: Peter McGough collection
pnwtm: Pacific North West Truck Museum, Salem, Oregon
psm:     Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania
pvc:      Paul Vaughn collection
pwc:     Parker Wickham collection
rcc:      Robert Calvert collection
reotm:  R E Olds Transportation Museum, Lansing, Michigan
rg:        Robert Gabrick
rjc:       Robert Jankovich collection
rmc:     Rich Murnane collection
rnmc:   Ronald N Moskalczak collection
roc:      Rick Osterholt collection
rrc:      Ross Rehm collection
rsc:      Robert Snyder collection
sac:      Smithsonian Automobile Collection, Washington DC
sahb:    Society of Automotive Historians in Britain
sam:     Swigart Antique Auto Museum, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
scam:   Seal Cove Auto Museum, Seal Cove, Maine
schwm: Schwanke Museum, Willmar, Minnesota
sdhs:    San Diego Historical Society
sep:      Saturday Evening Post
sfam:    Simeone Foundation Auto Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
shsi:     State Historical Society of Iowa
sm:       Sloan Museum, Lansing, Michigan
snm:     Studebaker National Museum, South Bend, Indiana
src:       Stew Reamer collection
ta:         The Automobile
tam:      Tupelo Auto Museum, Tupelo, Mississippi
tbc:       Terry Bond collection
tbh:       The Bulb Horn
tbcb:     The Bell Collection, Bellingham, Washington
tcc:        Todd Carlson collection
tccj:       The Commercial Car Journal
tcm:       The Columbian Magazine
tcs:        The Cameron Story, William T Cameron, International Society for Vehicle Preservation
tcv:        The Commercial Vehicle
tha:       The Horseless Age
tljc:       Tim & Linda Jackson collection
tma:      The Motor Age
tmw:      The Motor World
toc:        Tim Olley collection
tom:       The Old Motor
tpc:        Tom Poyer collection
tpw:       The Power Wagon
twc:       Tony Weber collection
twp:       The Washington Post
twt:        The Washington Times
tww:      The World's Work
vmt:       Virginia Museum of Transportation, Roanoke, Virginia
vscm:     The Virtual Steam Car Museum Inc.
wam:     Wisconsin Auto Museum, Hartford, Wisconsin
wchm:   Wayne County Historical Museum, Richmond, Indiana
wiki:      Wikipedia
wlb:       William L. Bailey
wmcc:   Walt McCall collection
yahm:   Ypsilanti Automotive Heritage Museum, Ypsilanti, Michigan
yaim:    York Agricultural & Industrial Museum, York, Pennsylvania
yocs:     Ye Ole Carriage Shop, Spring Arbor, Michigan
zac:       Zeljko Arapovic emblem photo collection


Many printed and web based sources were used as references in preparing the details relating to the emblems, nameplates and vehicles described in this web-site. The following were the primary references:

Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942, Beverly Rae Kimes & Henry Austin Clark Jr.
The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile, G.N.Georgano
The Complete Encyclopedia of Motorcars 1885 to the Present, G.N.Georgano
The Complete Encyclopedia of Commercial Vehicles, G.N.Georgano
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of American Fire Engine Manufacturers, Walter M. P. McCall
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of American Trucks and Commercial Vehicles, Albert Mroz
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trucks and Buses, Denis Miller
The American Car since 1775, Editors of Automobile Quarterly
Ambulances & Funeral Vehicles 1900-1980 Photo Archives, Walt McCall & Tom McPherson
American Automobile Trademarks 1900-1960, C.H.Wendel
American Truck Spotter's Guide 1920-1970, Tad Burness
American Delivery Truck, Robert Gabrick
American Cars, Trucks and Motorcycles of World War I,  Albert Mroz
American Truck & Bus Spotter's Guide 1920-1985, Tad Burness
Cars of Canada, Hugh Durnford & Glenn Baechler
Classic American Heavy Trucks, Niels Jansen
Great Cars of the Great Plains, Curt McConnell, 1995
Lost Truck Legends, Robert Gabrick, 2012
Maxim Fire Apparatus 1914-1989 Photo Archive, Howard T Smith
Monstrous American Motor Car Spotter's Guide 1920 to 1980, Tad Burness
Pictorial History of American Trucks, Niels Jansen
The Antique Automobile, AACA
The Horseless Carriage Gazette, HCCA
The Bulb Horn, VMCCA
The Classic Car, CCCA
MoToR Magazine
Automobile Trade Journal
Commercial Car Journal
The Old Motor
The Auto Name Plate Collector, Harry Pulfer
American Automobiles website
Coachbuilt website
Detroit Public Library Digital Archive
New York Public Library Digital Archive
Stanley Register            

Specific auto maker's references:

100 Years of American LaFrance: An Illustrated History, Walter M P McCall, 2005
The American Taxi: A Century of Service, Ben Merkel & Chris Monier, 2006
Cadillac Standard of the World, The Complete Seventy-Year History, Maurice D Hendry, 1973
The Cameron Story, William T Cameron, ISVP, 1990
The Clydesdale Motor Truck Company, An Illustrated History, 1917-1939, Tiffany Willey Middleton and James M Semon, 2014
Elcar and Pratt Automobiles: The Complete History, William S Locke, 2007
Haynes-Apperson and America's First Practical Automobile - A History, W C Madden, 2006
Hupp Radiator Emblems and Badges 1909-1941, Hupmobile Club
The Kalamazoo Automobilist, David. O. Lyon, New Issues Press, 2002
Kelsey:the man and the car, Keith Marvin, The Horseless Carriage Gazette, 1960
Kissel Radiator Emblems, Lynn Kissel, The Kisselgraph, Dec. 2009
The Lexington Automobile: A Complete History, Richard A Stanley, 2007
Lone Star Motor Company, Hugh Hemphill, Texas Transport Museum, San Antonio, Texas
Maccar Trucks Built in Scranton, Ronald N Moskalczak, 2016
Mack, John B Montville, Haessner Publishing, 1973
A Brief History of the Paige-Detroit Motor Car Company, Bill Roberts
Pictorial History of Pleasure and Commercial Vehicles Manufactured in York County, Pennsylvania, Theodore F Freed & W F O Rosenmiller, 1977
The Porter: Personality, Prestige & Power, Keith Marvin, Antique Automobile, 1962
Premocar-Made in Birmingham, JD Weeks, Lulu Press, 2013
A History of Rainier, Marquette and Peninsular Motor Car Companies, Ronald J Putz, Bulb Horn, 1984
Reo Trucks 1910-1966 Photo Archive, Robert Gabrick, Enthusiast Books, 2006
The Republic Motor Car Company of Hamilton, Ohio; 1909-1914, John C Slade, The Antique and Classic Car Club of Butler County, 1960
Saxon...A Good Low-Priced Car, Kim M Miller, Antique Automobile, 1981

This reference note was written by Mike Shears.

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